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When to use map, flatMap, or for loops in Swift

I am a big fan of map and flatMap, and of the cleaner code that they allow to write.

When I realised how easy it was to use map in Swift I fell victim of one of the most common engineer disease: the shiny new thing syndrome.

When you have a new hammer, everything looks like a needle, including screws.

Thor smashing his hammer

I started to map everything, and got disappointed at the coffee shop when I couldn't flatMap my espresso with milk to get a flat white.

Why even bother having a for loop construct in the language when you can use map?!

Once I recovered from my diseased, making arguable coding choices along the way, I realised that map and for deserve the same respect, and serve different purposes. So here's the rule of thumb on when to use map and when to use for.

Use map when you need to transform arrays

let arrayOfNumbers = [1, 2, 3, 4]
let arrayOfString = { "\($0)" }

In the context of Array map get an array, applies a transformation function to every element, and returns a new array with the resulting elements. That's the best use case for map.

The cool thing about map is how you can chain multiple transformation together and have code that clearly express what it does.

let awesomeImages = averageImage

Use for loops when there are "side effects"

Without going into details an operation has a side effect if it results in some kind of state changing somewhere, for example changing the value of a variable, writing to disk, or updating the UI. In such case using a for loop is more appropriate.

for number in arrayOfNumbers {

And what about flatMap?

Everything said above stand true for flatMap as well.

When you need to transform the contents of an array of arrays, into a linear array use flatMap:

let users: [User] = ...
let allEmails = users.flatMap { $0.emails }

When the code needs to perform some action that has side effects use for, and here's a nice trick to avoid nesting:

for element in nestedArray.flatten() {
  updateUI(withElement: element)


I run some quick tests and I couldn't see any relevant performance difference between map and a for loop in Swift. The Swift compiler is probably smart enough to use the best performing loop operation regardless of the code we wrote.

To recap, here's my rule of thumb: if there's a side effect you probably want to use for, otherwise map seems a better fit

What is your experience with map vs for loops? Do you agree with me or have a different opinion, if so why? Get in touch on Twitter @mokagio or leave a comment below.

Update: forEach

Richard Fox on Twitter and on the comments below points out that Swift provides a forEach method too. The for loop above could be rewritten as:

arrayOfNumbers.forEach { print($0) }

I left out forEach because in my humble opinion the loop version reads better. For element in array do stuff seems better to me than array for each do stuff. Nevertheless forEach is as valid Swift as a for loop. You could rewrite all what we've said already using forEach instead of the loop and everything would still stand.

It is up to you and your team to decide which convention to use, and choose the appropriate construct depending on what you are trying to achieve.

Happy coding, and leave the codebase better than you found it.

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